Tajikistan Population

Population Distribution

As of 2023, the latest population of Tajikistan is 8,873,669, based on our calculation of the current data from UN (United Nations).

Total population 8,873,669
Population growth rate 1.52%
Birth rate 23.30 births per 1,000 people
Life expectancy
Overall life expectancy 66.72 years
Men life expectancy 63.63 years
Women life expectancy 69.97 years
Age structure
0-14 years 32.05%
15-64 years 64.54%
65 years and above 3.41%
Median age 23.90 years
Gender ratio (Male to Female) 0.99
Population density 62.01 residents per km²
Urbanization 24.70%
Ethnicities
Tajiks – last census 2010: 7,564,502 residents – 2000: 79.9% Tajiks, 15.3% Uzbeks, 1.1% Russians, 0.3% Tatars and others
Religions
Muslims (Sunnis) 85%, Muslims (Shiites) 5% (2003)
Human Development Index (HDI) 0.656
HDI ranking 125th out of 194

People in Tajikistan

Around 9 million people live in Tajikistan. Most of them – 85 percent – are Tajiks. Their country is named after them: Tajikistan means “Land of the Tajiks”. Tajiks are among the Iranian peoples. Unlike their Turkish-speaking neighbors in Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan, they speak an Iranian language. The Jaghnob people who live on the Jaghnob River are also part of the Tajik people.

In addition to Tajiks, there are also minorities living in the country. The largest group are the Uzbeks (14 percent). Small groups form Kyrgyz people (0.8 percent) and Russians (0.5 percent), as well as Tatars, Ukrainians and Germans. These groups, especially those of the Russians, were far larger before the end of the Soviet Union. Many left the country. The Pamiri live in the far east on the border with Afghanistan.

27 out of 100 residents live in a city. So the majority are at home in the country. By far the largest city is Dushanbe, followed by Khujand in the Ferghana Valley and Kulob and Qurghonteppa in the south-west of the country. Most of the people live in the country’s fertile valleys. The birth rate is quite high at 2.5 children per woman.

Languages in Tajikistan

The official language in Tajikistan is Tajik. This is an Iranian (Persian) language. The language distinguishes Tajikistan from the other Central Asian countries, because Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Kyrgyz and Turkmens are Turkic-speaking peoples.

Some scholars count Tajik as their own language, others see Tajik as a dialect of Persian. In any case, Tajik itself breaks down into numerous dialects.

Unlike in Iran or Afghanistan, Tajik is also not written in the Arabic-Persian alphabet, but with Cyrillic letters. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, efforts were made to write Tajik in Arabic letters again, but this was not successful. In 1998, however, four Cyrillic letters were abolished, namely ц, щ, ы and ь.

An example of a sentence in Tajik: Ман мактуб навишта истода-ам. That is what one speaks: Man maktub navishta istoda-am. And it means: I’m writing a letter.

Russian is still an important colloquial language in Tajikistan that many residents speak as a second language. Due to the high number of Uzbeks in the country, Uzbek is also spoken.

Religions in Tajikistan

Ninety percent of the population of Tajikistan are followers of Islam. 85 percent belong to Sunni Islam, 5 percent are Shiites.

Christians make up about 3 percent. For example, you are Russian Orthodox or Catholic or belong to a Protestant free church or are Jehovah’s Witnesses.

Tajikistan Overview

Tajikistan, located in Central Asia, is renowned for its stunning mountainous landscapes, including the majestic Pamir and Tien Shan ranges, earning it the nickname “the Roof of the World.” The country is famous for its rich cultural heritage, with influences from Persian, Islamic, and Soviet traditions. Visitors are drawn to Tajikistan for its historic Silk Road cities, such as Samarkand and Bukhara, and its warm hospitality. Despite its rugged terrain and economic challenges, Tajikistan offers adventurous travelers opportunities for trekking, mountaineering, and cultural exploration in one of the world’s most captivating and least-explored regions.

  • Capital City: Dushanbe
  • Population: Approximately 9.5 million
  • Area: 143,100 square kilometers
  • Full Country Name: Republic of Tajikistan
  • Currency: Tajikistani somoni (TJS)
  • Language: Tajik
  • ISO Country Codes: ISO 3166-1 alpha-2: TJ, ISO 3166-1 alpha-3: TJK

Bordering Countries of Tajikistan

Tajikistan is a landlocked country located in Central Asia bordered by Afghanistan to the south, Uzbekistan to the west, Kyrgyzstan to the north and China to the east. It is a small nation with an area of 143,100 square kilometers and a population of 8.7 million people.

The terrain of Tajikistan is mostly mountainous with its highest peak being Ismoil Somoni Peak at 7495 meters above sea level. The country has several major rivers including the Amu Darya, Syr Darya, Vakhsh and Zeravshan which flow into other countries such as Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. The climate of Tajikistan is continental with hot summers and cold winters while its vegetation consists mainly of steppe grasslands in the lowlands and alpine meadows in higher elevations.

Afghanistan borders Tajikistan to the south along an 804 kilometer border stretching from its westernmost point near Ishkashim to its easternmost point near Kala-i-Khumri. The two countries share strong cultural ties due to their common history as part of the Persian Empire during ancient times as well as their shared language which is Persian or Farsi in both countries. In recent years there have been increased economic ties between both sides including increased trade between them as well as Afghan refugees crossing into Tajikistan seeking asylum from conflicts in their home country.

Uzbekistan borders Tajikistan to the west along an 968 kilometer border stretching from its northernmost point near Khojenti to its southernmost point near Jizak. Both countries share strong cultural ties due to their common history as part of Soviet Union during recent times as well as their shared language which is Uzbek in both countries although there are some differences between them such as different dialects spoken by people living on either side of the border. In recent years there have been increased economic ties between both sides including increased trade between them as well as joint projects such as building bridges connecting cities on either side of the border or establishing new power lines for electricity transmission across it.

Kyrgyzstan borders Tajikistan to the north along an 870 kilometer border stretching from its westernmost point near Sary-Tash to its easternmost point near Isfara. Both countries share strong cultural ties due to their common history during Soviet Union times when they were part of same union republic known then as Kyrgyz SSR while also sharing similar languages which are Kyrgyz and Tajiki although some differences exist between them such dialects spoken by people living on either side of the border or even different writing systems used for each language (Cyrillic alphabet for Kyrgyz and Latin alphabet for Tajiki). In recent years there have been increased economic ties between both sides including increased trade between them but also joint projects such building roads connecting cities on either side of the border or establishing new power lines for electricity transmission across it.

Finally, China borders Tajikistan to east along a 414 kilometer border stretching from its northernmost point near Taxkorgan County all way down south till Kulma Pass which separates it from Afghanistan’s Wakhan Corridor region further south eastwards towards Pakistan’s Gilgit-Baltisan region further eastwards still towards Indian Kashmir region further eastwards still towards India itself further eastwards still towards Bangladesh still further eastwards till Bay Of Bengal Sea at China’s eastern most extremity. Both countries share strong cultural ties due mainly Chinese ethnic minorities present in Tajikstan today mostly concentrated around Pamir Mountains region at extreme eastern parts bordering China. In recent years there have been increased economic ties between both sides including direct flights connecting major cities on either side, Chinese investments into Tajikistani companies, Chinese funded infrastructure projects such roads, railways etc.

 

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