Pipe Spring National Monument in Arizona
In the reserve of the natives
According to ehuacom, Pipe Spring National Monument is located in northern Arizona, United States. The Utah border is in close proximity. Pipe Spring National Monument itself is within the Kaibab Paiute Indian Reservation. The central element of Pipe Spring National Monument is a 16-acre ranch built in 1872. The main house is called “Windsor Castle”. Declared National Monument in 1923, it commemorates the region’s Native American population and Mormon settlement. The Mormons have established their “own state” in neighboring Utah, with the capital Salt Lake City.
Outbuildings of the former Mormon ranch on the Indian Reservation
A bit off the main tourist routes
The area around the National Monument in Arizona is extremely sparsely populated, as the nearby Grand Canyon with the Colorado River makes access difficult. In the region around the Pipe Spring National Monument, a fairly original flora and fauna could be preserved due to the low human influence.
However, nature was only protected by the designation of the protected area. The plant and animal world at Pipe Spring National Monument was severely affected by the previous settlement and grazing of the area.
New tourism concept for Pipe Spring
As more tourist attractions developed in the region, Pipe Spring National Monument soon became obsolete; there were even plans to close down the National Monument. Only after World War II and in the decades that followed did Pipe Spring National Monument become more popular again. A concept was developed together with the Paiute Indians to upgrade the national monument and make it more attractive for visitors. The buildings have been restored. Today there are exhibitions to see there and guided tours of the region are offered. Some shorter trails start at the main building at Pipe Spring National Monument. There are also herds of cattle at the National Monument again. About 50,000 tourists visit the Pipe Spring National Monument in Arizona every year.
Historic Covered Wagon at the Water Reservoir – Pipe Spring Monument Arizona
The fight for the water
The National Monument got its name from a spring called Pipe Spring. The water source was also the reason that the Mormons once settled there. The fight for the water from the spring caused great problems with deaths on the part of the settlers and the Native Americans. Only in 1870 could peace be guaranteed in the region by a treaty.
Only suitable for cattle breeding
Up until World War I, the National Monument’s farm was used for livestock and cattle raising. After World War I, however, the ranch fell into disrepair. Pipe Spring National Monument was finally rebuilt and furnished in 1923 purely for tourism reasons. The specialty is that Pipe Spring is the only well within a 100 kilometer radius in this arid region of Arizona.
Sonoran Desert National Monument in Arizona
cactus desert and mountains
Sonoran Desert National Monument, the Sonoran Desert is located in southwestern Arizona, southwest of the capital, Phoenix. The protected area includes areas of the Sonoran Desert near the border with Mexico and mountainous parts of the region. The closest town to the National Monument is Gila Bend. The Sonoran Desert National Monument in Arizona has a size of about 2,000 km².
Saguaro cacti in the Sonoran Desert of Arizona
This national protected area of the USA has only existed since 2001. Previously, parts of the Sonoran Desert National Monument had already been included in the US nature conservation program with the protection status “Wilderness”. Within Sonoran Desert National Monument are the Maricopa Mountains and the solitary Table Top Mountain.
Cholla Cactus and Ocotillo Cactus
The characteristic plant of the sanctuary is the saguaro cactus and some opuntia cactus species such as the cholla cactus and ocotillo cactus. The largest animals found in the sanctuary are bighorn sheep, mule deer, fox, lynx and coyote. Birds of prey and various species of reptiles can also be found.
Beautiful inflorescence of a saguaro cactus
A functioning infrastructure does not exist at the Sonoran Desert National Monument. The protected area is therefore freely accessible and can be hiked through, for example. It is important to ensure that there are sufficient food supplies, but primarily that there are sufficient water supplies.
Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument in Arizona
Ecosystem of the lava fields
Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument is located in the state of Arizona – USA, near the city of Flagstaff. The relatively small national monument encompasses a fairly symmetrical volcanic cone and the immediate vicinity. The sanctuary is located in northern Arizona. The summit with the manageable caldera of the extinct volcano is located at 2,451 meters above sea level on the large and high Colorado plateau.
Volcanic Cone – Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument
At the foot of the mountain is cooled lava and walk-through lava tubes. The mountain itself may no longer be entered due to the sensitive ecosystems on the volcanic cone, the volcanic lava structure and the flora. The slopes of the volcano are loosely covered with pines, yellow pines. In spring and summer, blooming wild flowers transform the area into a small sea of flowers. The current state of the extinct volcano dates from the years 1040 to 1100 AD, during the “big” eruption of the volcano. Back then, the volcanic eruption dramatically changed the landscape of the region. A presumably last, only small eruption took place in 1250. The National Monument was established in 1930.
Vulkan as a landscape designer
At the beginning of the slope of the almost symmetrical volcanic cone, the diameter is about 1,000 meters. The volcanic cone visible today is located above previously extinct volcanic vents. Due to erosion, wind and weather, the volcanic ash of that time, ground up volcanic rock to this day, has spread far and wide over the volcanic region.
Loose stand of trees at Sunset Crater in Arizona
Before the first eruption began in the late 11th century, the region was inhabited by the Sinagua people. They operated corn cultivation, this was found out by finds during excavations. After the end of the great eruption, the region became even more populated than before. The volcanic ash acted like fertilizer for crop cultivation. As a result, more people could be fed than before the volcanic eruption.