The Mexican trade union system is very fragmented. The most important umbrella organizations include the Unión General de Obreros y Campesinos de México (UGOCM, founded 1949), the Confederación de Trabajadores de México (CTM, founded 1936) and the Federación de Sindicatos de Trabajadores al Servicio del Estado (FSTSE, founded 1938).
The total strength of the army is (2014) around 267,000 men; the paramilitary forces include 45,500 members of the various police forces. The military service (service period twelve months) is mostly voluntary, but partly also regulated by lottery. The army (around 205,000 soldiers) is divided into 12 military regions, among others. with infantry, engineer and tank brigades as well as 46 independent “district garrisons”, among others. with infantry battalions and motorized cavalry regiments. The navy has around 54,000 and the air force around 8,000 men.
As a country starting with letter M according to countryaah, Mexico consists of 31 states and the capital Mexico (Ciudad de México). At the head of the federal states, which have their own constitutions and their own parliaments, there is a governor who is directly elected for 6 years.
Administrative division in Mexico
|Administrative division (2015)|
|Administrative unit||Area (in km 2)||Population(in 1,000)||Residents(per km 2)||capital city|
|Capital (Ciudad de México)||1 485||8,918.7||6 004||Mexico|
|Baja California||71 446||3,315.8||46||Mexicali|
|Baja California Sur||73 922||712.0||10||La Paz|
|Chiapas||73 289||5,217.9||71||Tuxtla Gutiérrez|
|Guerrero||63 621||3,533.3||56||Chilpancingo de los Bravos|
|Hidalgo||20 846||2,858.4||137||Pachuca de Soto|
|Mexico (México)||22 357||16 187.6||724||Toluca|
|Morelos||4 893||1 903.8||389||Cuernavaca|
|Nuevo León||64 220||5 119.5||80||Monterrey|
|Oaxaca||93 793||3,967.9||42||Oaxaca de Juarez|
|Puebla||34 290||6 168.9||180||Puebla|
|Quintana Roo||42 361||1,501.6||35||Chetumal|
|San Luis Potosí||60 983||2,717.8||44||San Luis Potosí|
|Tamaulipas||80 175||3,441.7||43||Ciudad Victoria|
|Tlaxcala||3,991||1,272.8||319||Tlaxcala de Xicoténcatl|
|Veracruz||71 820||8 112.5||113||Jalapa Enríquez|
The constitution guarantees freedom of the press, but it is subject to significant restrictions through violence against journalists who report on corruption and crime and self-censorship. Overall, the media sector, especially radio and television, shows a high degree of economic concentration.
Press: More than 300 newspapers appear in Mexico, the highest-circulation newspapers in the capital. These include the daily newspapers »La Prensa« (founded 1928, left), »El Universal« (founded 1916, close to the PRI), »Excélsior« (founded 1917, conservative), »Reforma« (founded 1993), »El Sol de México “(founded in 1965) and” Esto “, the oldest sports newspaper in Latin America (founded in 1941).
News agencies: Notimex (founded in 1968, state-owned), Agencia de noticias El Universal (independent), Agencia de Información Integral Periodística (AIIP, founded 1987, independent).
Broadcasting: Radio programs are broadcast by around 1,400, mostly local radio stations. Around 400 television stations belong to the Televisa group of companies (founded in 1973): The world’s largest Spanish-speaking television broadcaster operates four major stations in Mexico, including “Canal de las Estrellas”. The second largest TV company is Azteca (founded in 1993) with three channels (including “Azteca 7”). Both providers control four fifths of the market. No. 3 is the public service »Once TV« (Canal 11) of the Instituto Politécnico Nacional (IPN).
The first advanced civilization in what is now Mexico arose from 1000 BC. BC to 300 BC Under the Olmecs. 1000 was the heyday of the culture of the Maya, since the 14th century invaded from the north, the Mixtecs, Toltecs and Aztecs, and led to the fall of the Mayan empire brought.
After the conquest of the Aztec Empire by the Spaniards under Hernán Cortés in the 16th century, Mexico formed the Spanish viceroyalty of New Spain. In 1821/23 the country gained independence from Spain.
After a war against the USA in 1848 Mexico had to cede California, New Mexico and Texas, among others. Domestic political tensions sparked a civil war in 1857, as a result of which, at the instigation of France, the Empire of Mexico was established in 1864 (under the Austrian Archduke Maximilian ), which, however, soon broke up again. Maximilian was shot (1867). Porfirio Díaz came through a coup d’état in 1876 to power (terms of office 1876–80 and 1884–1911). His long reign, the »Porfiriat«, is considered an era of domestic political stabilization and economic modernization. While he largely eliminated the opposition by dictatorial means, he was able to advance economic development through railway and road construction as well as oil production with the help of foreign capital. His fall ushered in the Mexican Revolution (1911-20), in which the socialist direction prevailed and ruled as the “Institutional Revolutionary Party” for 71 years until 2000.
In 1994 armed indigenous people rose up in the Chiapas region (Zapatistas) against their oppression. Among other things, they called for land reform and better educational opportunities. After massive military actions, there was a temporary calm in 1996. From 2000 onwards, the government made greater efforts to bring peace to Chiapas, which was achieved in 2003. Domestically, the “drug war” remained the main problem. The government set itself the goal of observing human rights in the fight against the cartels. Although the number of officially registered murders fell, other serious violent crimes such as extortion and kidnappings increased. In 2014, 43 students who wanted to protest there disappeared in the city of Iguala, Guerrero state. They were allegedly abducted and murdered.